What is pH
by Winston Kao
[From French p(ouvoir) h(ydrogene) lit. hydrogen power.]
So let’s start looking at chemistry from the simplest point of view.
What is pH? It is the quantity of Hydrogen in a solution, or the concentrations of H+ (hydrogen) in a solution.
Unlike most scales which are linear scales; For example, difference between 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 all have equal distances or quantities of 10 divisions.
The pH Scale is a logarithmic scale, in other words, the difference between pH 1 & pH 2 is 10; and the difference between pH 1 & pH 3 is 100. Example: There is ten trillion times more hydrogen in pH 1 than there is in pH 14.
In the below chart it show the difference between:
14 pH and 1 pH is 10,000,000,000,000 H+ – – – – – – – – – – – – – – strong acid
14 pH and 2 pH is 1,000,000,000,000
14 pH and 3 pH is 100,000,000,000
14 pH and 4 pH is 10,000,000,000
14 pH and 5 pH is 1,000,000,000
14 pH and 6 pH is 100,000,000 – – – – – – – – – – – – – weak acid
14 pH and 7 pH is 10,000,000 – – – – – – – – an arbitrary mid point, called “neutral”
14 pH and 8 pH is 1,000,000 – – – – – – – – – – – – – weak alkaline
14 pH and 9 pH is 100,000
14 pH and 10 pH is 10,000
14 pH and 11 pH is 1,000
14 pH and 12 pH is 100
14 pH and 13 pH is 10
14 pH and 14 pH is 0- – – strong alkaline
In other words pH 1 has ten trillion times more hydrogen than pH 14. Or pH 14 has (1x 10 to negative 14 power) (1x 10 –14[WK1] ) less hydrogen.
So for a soil pH to change from a high pH of 8 down to a pH of 5 it is not a factor of 3, but because the pH Scale is a logarithmic scale, it is a factor of 1000. Therefor one has to add 1000 times more acid to bring down the pH. In other words one has to add 1000 times more H+.
Difference between 5 pH and 6 pH is 10
Difference between 5 pH and 7 pH is 100
Difference between 5 pH and 8 pH is 1000
Winston W. J. Kao 727-447-2344 or firstname.lastname@example.org
Copy Right Winston W. J. Kao 2005©
PayPal Credit Offer Details
PayPal Credit Offer Details
Special Limited Time Offer: 1% Cashback
- You must make a PayPal Credit purchase between 12:00:00 AM PT on April 30, 2015 and 11:59:59 PM PT on June 30, 2015 to be eligible for the 1% Cashback offer.
- Every qualifying purchase you make using PayPal Credit from any participating U.S. merchant between 12:00:00 AM PT on April 30, 2015 and 11:59:59 PM PT on December 31, 2015 will receive 1% cash back of total purchases.
- In order to be eligible for this offer, you must directly receive an email regarding 1% Cashback from PayPal or
- PayPal Credit or be presented with a 1% Cashback offer while logged into your PayPal account.
- You will receive monthly emails from PayPal Credit informing you of the amount of cash back accrued.
- You will receive 1% cash back of total purchases as a deposit into your PayPal account balance between
- January 1 – 31, 2016.
- Purchases returned or payments refunded or cancelled at any time will not qualify as a purchase. If the purchase is returned or the payment is refunded after you receive the cash back, PayPal Credit will deduct the cash back value of that purchase or payment from the total cash back balance from your PayPal account within 30 days.
- For full PayPal Credit Cashback Terms & Conditions click here.
Get $10 back on your first purchase with PayPal Credit.
- Offer valid on purchases made by June 30, 2015
- Your $10 credit is available by exclusive invitation only.
- Valid for first PayPal Credit purchase only.
- You will receive $10 back as a statement credit (within 1-2 billing cycles of your first purchase).
- No minimum purchase required.
- If you have already made a purchase using your PayPal Credit account, you are not eligible to receive the $10 statement credit.
- Offer not valid on previous returns and exchanges or when using the Send Money feature in your PayPal account. If the payment is refunded or cancelled at anytime, you are not eligible for the offer.
- You may not be eligible to add PayPal Credit to your PayPal account or for the $10 back if you do not meet certain criteria established by PayPal or if you already have a PayPal Smart Connect, eBay MasterCard or PayPal Extras MasterCard linked to your account.
- Limit 1 per customer; non-transferable.
Enjoy No Payments and No Interest if paid in full in 6 months on PayPal Credit purchases of $99 or more. Simply choose PayPal Credit when you check out with PayPal.
Interest will be charged to your account from the posting date (which is usually within a few days after the purchase date) if the purchase balance is not paid in full within 6 months. Offer valid on purchases made by June 30, 2015.
Subscribe now to receive our FREE eBook, Toxic Secrets in Your Water.
Social Widgets powered by AB-WebLog.com.